Diagnosis of Dry Eyes
Diagnosis of Dry Eyes can be done by your complains or symptoms and by signs of dry eyes which can be seen by your doctor when using slit-lamp and also by ordering investigations.
1- Symptoms of Dry Eyes
Read More about Symptoms of Dry Eyes
2- Signs of Dry Eyes
A- Measure the stability of the tear film by tear film break-up time.
B- Schirmer test. It is used to assess aqueous tear production.
This test involves measuring the amount of wetting of a special paper or strips which is inserted between the lower eyelid and lower part of the cornea for few minutes. Less wetting of the strip is an indication of dry eye.
C- Staining of cornea and conjunctiva with special stains which are either fluorescein or rose Bengal dye.
Both of them will measure the amount of corneal damage or corneal abrasions and according to the pattern of staining, your doctor can determine the cause of these epithelial damages.
Those are the main three investigations that can be done in your doctor clinic. Other tests can be done like measuring the osmolarity of tear film which is a new technique.
For patients with autoimmune diseases blood tests should be done to measure the amounts and types of Autoantibodies. Sometimes sample or biopsy from lacrimal gland or salivary gland can be taken to confirm the diagnosis of special diseases like sarcoidosis.