Diagnosis of Glaucoma
Diagnosis of Glaucoma can be done through a comprehensive eye exam that includes:
1. Visual acuity test or vision test
Some times even with advanced glaucoma damage the visual acuity can still be 20 20 or near it.
2. Tonometry or Tonopen
we can use them for intraocular pressure measurement. Tonopen is used mainly to measure Intraocular pressure in children who are not cooperative to be examined at slit-lamp or in patients who have corneal grafts because it will give more accurate readings than tonometry.
It is a special lens used to examine the angle to differentiate between closed and open angle glaucoma. Also we can see pigmentations which can be due to Pigmentary glaucoma, pseudoexfoliation glaucoma or inflammatory glaucoma.
4. Visual field test or Perimetry
This test can measure your visual field which is the area of the space that u can see it by each eye. It shows in which part of visual field you have defects and are those defects caused by glaucoma or by other causes because defects caused by glaucoma have special patterns.
5. OCT or optical coherence tomography
This can be used to measure the thickness of the nerve fiber layer which by glaucoma damage will become thin. New OCT can be used to measure the corneal thickness and to visualize.
6. Dilated eye exam
With the use of a special magnifying lens to examine your retina and optic nerve head for signs of damage. The look of optic nerve head and its color with size are the signs we look at to diagnosis glaucoma nerve damage.
It is an ultrasonic wave instrument to measure the thickness of your cornea. Thick cornea or thin cornea can give false I.O.P measurements by Tonometry in which thick cornea will overestimate the readings while thin cornea will underestimate the readings.