Risk Factors for Age Related Macular Degeneration
Publish date 06-03-2016

Risk Factors for Age Related Macular Degeneration




Risk Factors For Age Related Macular Degeneration


1- Age

AMD ( Age Related Macular Degeneration) is a growing problem in which its risk will increase steadily after the age of 50.

2- Smoking

Smoking will double the risk of AMD. Cigarette smoking is the single most preventable factor in macular degeneration

3- Cardiovascular diseases

These include hypertension, atherosclerosis, stroke, and coronary artery diseases.

4- Nutrition and Diet

Low levels of nutrients and high fat diet. Nutrients and minerals like zinc and

antioxidant vitamins

, such as A, C and E are very important factors that

protect your eyes

from oxidation process and inflammation that occur from daily exposure to sunlight and also from normal aging process and normal metabolism.

Products of metabolism are harmful and if kept in your body,they will damage cells and that it is why having regular antioxidants will have you against many harmful products.

There are many types of fat and not all of them will increase the risk of AMD.

Saturated fat will increase the

risk of age related macular degeneration

, while

omega-3 fatty acid

which is found mainly in fish will reduce the

risk of macular degeneration

Another type of omega fatty acid is omega-6 fatty acids which is found mainly in processed food and animal products, will increase the risk of macular degeneration because it play a rule factor in inflammation which can cause retinal damage

5- Obesity and inactivity
It will increase the risk of mild and intermediate form of AMD to convert to severe form. Exercise at least three times weekly reduced risk of developing advanced Macular Degeneration, compared with those inactive patients.




Age Related Macular Degeneration is more in white people than African Americans people.

7- Family history

The risk will increase if a member of the family has AMD.

8- AMD in the fellow eye


Advanced macular degeneration

in one eye will be a risk factor for the other eye to develop AMD.

9- Sex

It is more common in female than male.

10- Light-colored eyes

People with light-colored eyes like green and blue eyes, appear to be at more risk than those with darker eyes.

11- Exposure to sunlight
This category of AMD risk factors remains controversial and not yet been proved. Long-term exposure to ultraviolet light may increase the risk of developing AMD.

12- High myopia

It can lead to AMD or a similar condition called myopic degeneration.

13- Genetics

Variants of genes know as complement factor H and complement factor B have been associated with AMD. Factor H is very important inhibitor of inflammation and any mutation in these genes will form abnormal factor H with no inflammation inhibition ability.

14- Drug Side Effects

Some cases of AMD can be induced from side effects of toxic drugs such as chloroquine (Aralen), phenothiazine derivatives like chlorpromazine (Thorazine), thioridazine (Mellaril), fluphenazine (Prolixin), perphenazine (Trilafon) and trifluoperazine (Stelazine).




Related Articles