Risk Factors for Age Related Macular Degeneration
Risk Factors For Age Related Macular Degeneration
AMD ( Age Related Macular Degeneration) is a growing problem in which its risk increases steadily after the age of 50.
Smoking can double the risk of macular degeneration. Cigarette smoking is the single most preventable factor in macular degeneration
3- Cardiovascular diseases
These include hypertension, atherosclerosis, stroke and coronary artery diseases.
4- Nutrition and Diet
Low levels of nutrients and high fat diet. Nutrients and minerals like zinc and antioxidant vitamins, such as A, C and E are very important factors that protect your eyes from oxidation process and inflammation that occur from daily exposure to sunlight and also from normal aging process and normal metabolism.
Products of metabolism are harmful and if kept in your body,they will damage cells and that it is why having regular antioxidants will have you against many harmful products. There are many types of fat and not all of them will increase the risk of AMD.
Saturated fat will increase the risk of age related macular degeneration, while omega-3 fatty acid which is found mainly in fish will reduce the risk of macular degeneration.
Another type of omega fatty acid is omega 6 fatty acid which is found mainly in processed food and animal products, will increase the risk of macular degeneration because it play a rule factor in inflammation which can cause retinal damage
5- Obesity and inactivity
It will increase the risk of mild and intermediate form of AMD to convert to severe form. Exercise at least three times weekly reduced risk of developing advanced macular degeneration, compared with those inactive patients.
Age Related Macular Degeneration is more in white people than African Americans people.
7- Family history
The risk will increase if a member of the family has AMD.
8- AMD in the fellow eye
Advanced macular degeneration in one eye will be a risk factor for the other eye to develop AMD.
It is more common in female than male.
10- Light-colored eyes
People with light-colored eyes like green and blue eyes, appear to be at more risk than those with darker eyes.
11- Exposure to sunlight
This category of AMD risk factors remains controversial and not yet been proved. Long term exposure to ultraviolet light may increase the risk of developing AMD.
12- High myopia
It can lead to AMD or a similar condition called myopic degeneration.
Variants of genes know as complement factor H and complement factor B have been associated with AMD. Factor H is very important inhibitor of inflammation and any mutation in these genes will form abnormal factor H with no inflammation inhibition ability.
14- Drug Side Effects
Some cases of AMD can be induced from side effects of toxic drugs such as chloroquine (Aralen), phenothiazine derivatives like chlorpromazine (Thorazine), thioridazine (Mellaril), fluphenazine (Prolixin), perphenazine (Trilafon) and trifluoperazine (Stelazine).