Ophthalmology Terminology A

Ophthalmology Terminology A

Ophthalmology Terminology A



Abducens Nerve Palsy

A congenital defect of the eyelids in which there is deficiency of the anterior or the front part of the eyelid.

Acanthamoeba Keratitis. Corneal infection that is caused by amoebae. Most commonly it is associated with contact lenses.

Achromatopsia. Congenital color blindness with absence of color discrimination.

Acne Rosacea. Chronic skin condition that is characterized by rash, erythema and telangiectasia of the face, cheeks, nose and eyelids.

Acute posterior multifocal placoid pigment epitheliopathy. Bilateral, idiopathic, self-limited disease that affects subretinal area with white to yellow placoid lesions with mild vitreous cells.

Acute Retinal Necrosis. Retinal inflammation and infarction that is associated with uveitis. It is caused by herpes simplex virus and varicella herpes zoster virus.

Adenoviral keratoconjunctivitis. Infection of the conjunctiva and the cornea by adenovirus.

Adie Syndrome. Is a neurological disorder of the pupil in which the pupil is diluted and slowly reacted to light.



Afferent Pupillary Defect. A defect in pupil response to light which can be either absolute or relative afferent pupillary defect.Relative afferent pupillary defect is paradoxical dilation of pupil when the light is swung from affected eye to normal eye and it is caused mainly by optic nerve diseases.

Age Related Cataract. Type of cataract that is associated with aging. It is also called senile cataract.

Age Related Macular Degeneration

Air Puff Tonometer. Type of non contact tonometry that is used to measure the intraocular pressure. It uses a rapid air pulse to flatten the cornea. The force of the air that is required to flatten the cornea is used to estimate the intraocular pressure through special electro-optical system.

Albinism. It is a defect of melanin production of melanocytes. Melanocytes present in skin,hair,iris and choroid. Affected persons have white skin, blond hair and pink eye.

Allergic Conjunctivitis. Inflammation of conjunctiva that is caused by allergic condition.

Amblyopia. Decrease in visual acuity with no ocular organic causes that can be detected by the eye doctor. In certain age and with appropriate treatment, it can be reversible

Amsler Grid

Angioid Streaks. Breaks in the inner layer of the choroid which is called bruch's membrane.

Angle Kappa. It is the angle between two lines.The first line is the pupillary axis and the second line is the visual axis. It is divided into two types. Positive angle Kappa when the pupillary axis is nasal to the visual axis, and negative angle kappa when the pupillary axis is temporal to the visual axis.

Angle Closure Glaucoma

Angle Recession Glaucoma.
It is a type of glaucoma that occurs due to rupture of ciliary body between longitudinal and oblique muscles fibers. This rupture occurs after blunt trauma to the eye.

Anhidrosis. It absence of sweating. One of the ocular causes of it is Horner Syndrome.

Aniridia. Absence of Iris. It can be complete or partial absence of iris.





Adhesion between the upper and the lower eye lid at the outer corner of the eye.It occurs in patients with cicatricial conjunctivitis.

Anophthalmia. Complete absence of Eye globe.

Anterior Chamber. The part of the eye which lies anterior to the iris.

Anterior Ischemic Optic Neuropathy. Optic nerve disorder that involves optic disc and the anterior part of the optic nerve due to ischemic infarction of the nerve.

Anterior Uveitis. Inflammation in the anterior part of the eye.


Aphakic Glaucoma.
Type of glaucoma that occurs in patients with no crystalline lens in their eyes.

Aphakia. Absence of the crystalline lens from the eye which can be either congenital or acquired from surgeries or trauma.

Aqueous Humor. Fluid that presents in the anterior segment of the eye. It is secreted from ciliary process.

AREDS 2 Formula



Argon Laser Trabeculoplasty. Type of the laser that is used to treat certain types of glaucoma. Laser sports are directed to trabecular meshwork to increase the outflow or drainage of aqueous humor from the anterior chamber.

Argyll Robertson Pupil. Type of neurological disorder of the pupil in which the pupil is small or miosed. Most commonly is it associated with Syphilis.

Argyrosis. Ocular tissue discoloration due to deposition of silver at Descemet Membrane.

Aspheric Contact Lens. The central part of the contact lens surface is spherical in shape while the peripheral part of the same surface is flat. This help to decrease the optical aberration.

Asteroid Hyalosis

Atopic Keratoconjunctivitis. Changes in the conjunctiva, cornea and eyelids in patients with atopic dermatitis and eczema

Atropine Eye Drops

Avastin. Type of medication that acts against vascular endothelial growth factors. These factors stimulate the formation of abnormal blood vessels in the retina and iris.

Axenfeld Anomaly. It is disorder of the anterior chamber of the eye in which the Schwalbe's line is more prominent and displaced anterior.Strands from the peripheral part of the eye are attached to this line. It is associated with glaucoma.

Axenfeld-Rieger Syndrome




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