Travatan Eye Drops
Travatan Eye Drops
Travatan eye drops is prostaglandin F analogue called travoprost that is used to reduce high intraocular pressure. It is supplied as sterile, buffered aqueous solution with a pH of approximately 6.0 and an osmolality of approximately 290 mOsmol/kg.
Indications of Travatan Eye Drops
It is used to decrease high intraocular pressure in patients with open angle glaucoma and normal tension glaucoma. It can be used but with caution and under direct supervision of the eye doctor in other types of glaucoma such as neovascular glaucoma, pseudoexfoliation glaucoma and angle closure glaucoma.
Mechanism of Action
Travoprost is a prostaglandin analogue that acts on a selective FP prostanoid receptor. It activates these receptors which help to increase drainage of aqueous humor outside the eye through Uveoscleral pathway.
Ingredients of Travatan Eye Drops
Travoprost 0.04 mg/mL.
Polyoxyl 40 hydrogenated castor oil, tromethamine, boric acid, mannitol, edetate disodium, sodium hydroxide and/or hydrochloric acid to adjust pH and purified water.
Benzalkonium chloride 0.15 mg/mL.
The recommended dose is once daily in the evening. It action starts 2 hours after the instillation and last for 12 hours. It should not be administered more than once per day because they found that higher dose of prostaglandin analogues can have opposite effect with increase in intraocular pressure.
Store at 2° - 25°C (36° - 77°F). It should be used for a month once opened.Keep it away from sunlight, moisture and heat.
Keep it away from children and pets.
Side Effects of Travatan Eye Drops
1- Ocular Hyperemia or red eye, which is the most common side effects.
2- Other less common ocular side effects are decreased visual acuity, burning and foreign body sensation, blepharitis, dry eye, photophobia and subconjunctival hemorrhage, conjunctivitis and punctuate keratitis.
3- Discoloration of the iris and periocular skin can occur. It occurs mainly due to increase in the number of melanosomes inside the melanocytes.
4- Increase in thickness and number of eyelashes.
5- Anterior chamber uveitis and macular edema.
6- Non-ocular side effects that are uncommon to occur but was reported in almost 1-5% of patients. Headache, Systemic allergic reaction, chest pain, angina pectoris, bradycardia, anxiety and asthma. To minimize systemic side effects, press on the inner corner of the eye, near the nose after eye drops instillation. This will help to decrease systemic absorption of the eye drops.
Changes in the eyelashes that occur gradually and with chronic use, more than 6 weeks. These changes include increasing in length, thickness, darkness and number of the eyelashes. These changes are reversible once the eye drop is discontinued. This feature can be used as a treatment option with Latisse to enhance eyelashes growth in patients with hypotrichosis.
Increase the incidence of intraocular inflammation which occurs mainly in patient with history of uveitis but also can occur in health patients.
Prostaglandin analogues disturb the blood-ocular barrier which normally prevents the leakage of fluid and cells from blood to inside the eye. It should be used with caution and under doctor supervision in patients with uveitis or history of uveitis.
It occurs mainly in aphakic patients, Pseudophakic patients with rupture of the posterior capsule. As we said, prostaglandin analogues disturb the blood-ocular barrier and cause leakage of fluid in the macular area leading to macular edema.
There are no adequate and well-controlled studies of Travoprost administration in pregnant women. It should be administered during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.
2- Nursing Mothers
Many drugs are excreted in human milk; it is not known whether Travatan eye drops or its metabolites are excreted in human milk. Caution should be exercised when it is administered to a nursing woman.
3- Pediatric Use
Use in pediatric patients below the age of 16 years is not recommended because of potential safety concerns related to increased pigmentation following long-term use.
4- Geriatric Use
No overall clinical differences in safety or effectiveness have been observed between elderly and other adult patient.
5- Use with Contact Lenses
Travatan contains benzalkonium chloride, which will participate on soft contact lenses. This will lead to the formation of small nodules on the surface of contact lenses that can cause lesions and erosions to cornea. It can also cause contact discoloration. Contact lenses should be removed prior to instillation of this eye drop and they can be reinserted 15 minutes following its administration.
When to Seek Physician Advice
Stop using Travatan eye drops and call your doctor at once if you have any of these serious side effects:
• Redness, swelling, itching, or pain in or around the eye.
• Eye discharge.
• Photophobia or increase sensitivity to light.
• Blurred vision.
Stop medication and get emergency medical help if you have any sign of an allergic reaction such as skin rash, hives, difficulty breathing and swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or throat.