Xalacom Eye Drops
Xalacom Eye Drops
It is one of the eye drops that is used to decrease high intraocular pressure. It contains two active ingredients which are Latanoprost and Timolol maleate while Xalatan Eye Drops contains only Latanoprost as an active ingredients.
Each one of them works in a different way to decrease high intraocular pressure and the combination of these two medications will have extra effects on intraocular pressure when one of them doesn’t lower the intraocular pressure enough on its own.
Latanoprost belongs to prostaglandin analogues family and it lowers intraocular pressure by increase the drainage volume of aqueous humor from the eye while Timolol belongs to Beta-blockers family and it acts by decreasing the production of aqueous humor from Ciliary Body (which is the main source of aqueous humor).
Ingredients of Xalacom Eye Drops
Latanoprost and timolol maleate.
Sodium chloride, monobasic sodium phosphate, dibasic anhydrous sodium phosphate and water for injections.
It is used only when prescribed by eye doctor and it is applied once a day. It is most effective if it is applied in the evening and exceeding the recommended dose will not give any extra benefits. It comes in a small bottle with 2.5 ml solution .Each 1 mL of it contains 50 micrograms of latanoprost and 5mg of timolol.
Each bottle can be used for a minimum of 80 drops which is enough for 4 weeks when applied once for both eyes.
- Before opening the bottle
Should be stored in its box in a refrigerator (2 degrees C-8 degrees C).
- After Opening the bottle
Should be stored in its box away from light and moisture in a cool place where the temperature stays below 25 degrees C, but do not refrigerate.
Once it’s opened, it would be advisable not to use it for more than 4 weeks. Always keep this medication and any other medications away from children and pets.
Indications of Xalacom
The main indications of xalacom are: Primary Open angle glaucoma and normal pressure glaucoma. It can be used in other types of glaucoma but with caution because latanoprost component can disturb the blood ocular barrier and increase intraocular inflammation.
In diabetic patients, it should be used with caution because the beta-blocker component can mask or hide signs and symptoms of lower blood sugar or hypoglycemia. You should check your blood sugar regularly.
Because of the beta-blocker component of the xalacom, it shouldn’t be used by patients who have :
1- Lung diseases
Such as Asthma and Chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases. Because the beta-blocker can exaggerate the signs and symptoms of these diseases.
2- Heart diseases
Such as Heart failure, Bradycardia or slow heart rate, heart block diseases. Beta-blockers will slow down the heart rate and can exaggerate signs and symptoms or these diseases.
3- Allergy to Xalacom or its component
If you are allergic to Xalacom and/or its components, you should tell your doctor about that. If you notice any signs and symptoms of allergic reactions to Xalacom, you should seek medical attention as soon as you can.These signs and symptoms are skin rash, red eye, eyelids and lips swelling, eye discharge, difficulty breathing with swelling of tongue and throat.
People with clinical depression should inform their doctor because one one of the side effects of Xalacom is depression. Special monitoring and multiple visits should occur to ensure the safety of this medication o your clinical condition.
5- Diabetes Mellitus
If the drug was absorbed into the bloodstream,Beta-Blocker components might masks the signs and symptoms of hypoglycemia which can cause a serious complications.You must test your blood sugar more often than usual when you are using this medication.
Any eye medication containing thimerosal should not be used at same time with Xalacom, because thimerosal will react with latanoprost forming solid particles which can cause injury to the cornea. At least 5-10 minutes apart between them.
Pregnant and Nursing Mother
This medication should not be used be a pregnant women or a nursing mother because this medication can have be absorbed to bloodstream and breast milk and it can be harmful for the baby. Always inform your doctor if you are pregnant or planning a pregnancy, before using any medicine.
There is no enough data to ensure the safety and effectiveness of this medication in children.
Side Effects of Xalacom
Xalacom eye drops consists of two components, latanoprost and timolol. Side effects of Xalacom are combination of side effects of these two components.
xalacom side effects can be divided into mild, moderate and severe. Mild side effects were reported to occur by at least 1% of people. Some of these mild side effects need treatments while other may go away by itself. Moderate and severe side effects are less common but could lead to serious problems. Once you notice any of these side effect or unusual symptoms, you should seek medical attention.
Mild Side Effects of Xalacom
These side effects can occur with most of types of eye drops and they are not specific for Xalacom.
• Dry mouth.
• Dryness of eye.
• Gritting or foreign body sensation.
• Irritation and burning sensation.
• temporary blurred vision after putting in the eye drop.
• Stinging sensation when medication is applied.
• Itchy eyes.
• Eye redness.
• Excessive lacrimation or tearing.
Moderate and Severe Side Effects
• Mainly are systemic side effects. They are uncommon to occur because of the low blood concentration of xalacom after absorption to blood stream but it is helpful to know about them because of the serious outcomes.
• Allergic reactions which includes eye redness, eye lid and conjunctiva swelling, itchy eyes, tongue swelling, difficulty of breathing, skin rash and shock.
• Eyes: Eyelid drooping or ptosis, redness and swelling.
• Tiredness and weakness.
• Ringing or buzzing in the ears.
• Sleeping difficulties (insomnia) and nightmares.
• Mood changes such as depression, anxiety, nervousness and hallucinations.
• Confusion, disorientation or memory loss.
• Gastro-intestinal symptoms such as nausea, diarrhea and anorexia
• Extremities: Raynaud's phenomenon which is the feelings of numbness and tingling with color changes of the skin (white, blue then red) in fingers and toes when exposed to the cold weather.
• Impotence with less desire for sex.
• Muscle and joint pain.
• Chest pain.
• Bradycardia or slow heart rate.
• Palpitation or irregular heart beat.
• Hypotension or low blood pressure which can be manifested as dizziness or light headache.
• Shortness of breath.
If you notice any of these side effects, you should Stop the medication immediately and seek urgent medical attention